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Everything in this text was created on a Macintosh computer running MacOS X and 9.2 and using NisusWriter 6.5. The materials are best viewed with Netscape Navigator or Mozilla because they rely on JavaScript (see below). Download Netscape Now!

Download Netscape Now! Created Entirely with Nisus Writer 6.5 Made with Macintosh!

Help on Javascript:

These pages rely on JavaScript to keep the top frame set to the correct chapter when the main window changes from a section in one chapter to a section in another chapter. JavaScript has also been used to enable the left frame to be closed using the close box in the upper left corner or the left frame and reopened using the small button (leftarrow.gif (72bytes)) that will appear if necessary. If these features aren't functioning, JavaScript may not be enabled on your browser.

Enabling JavaScript:

If you are using Netscape Navigator, choose "Network Preferences..." from the "Options" menu. Click on the "Languages" tab and then make sure the "Enable JavaScript" box is checked:

Enabling JavaScript on NS 3

If you are using Netscape Communicator, choose "Preferences..." from the "Options" menu. Click on the "Advanced" tab and then make sure the "Enable JavaScript" box is checked:

Enabling JavaScript on Communicator

Any display problems when using Netscape or Mozilla should be brought to the author's attention. However, no promises of suitability in or of constructing bug workarounds can be made with respect to other browsers. Contact their manufacturers. Note: As of 2000 07 29 an attempt has been made to work around the more glaring incompatibilities with Internet Explorer. Further problems should be brought to our attention, but no guarantees can be made that they can be resolved. Also, as many of the files here have graphical illustrations that are an integral part of any such text, there is no point in using a text only browser.


Materials are under construction and can be changed or added to at any time. The views apparently expressed or implied herein are not necessarily those of the author but are intended to provoke discussion on issues of importance in technology. Please report factual and mechanical errors. For the 1999-2000 edition, a number of small errors have been repaired. For the 2002-2003 edition, numerous errors have been repaired and material has been updated.


Students in a fourth-year undergraduate course in the social aspects of computing (who could be computing, communications, science, philosophy, history, or anthropology majors) should find these materials appropriate. Instructors should supplement the text with case studies, debates, student presentations and guest lectures on related material.

The Fourth Civilization Table of Contents
Copyright © 1988-2002 by Rick Sutcliffe
Published by Arjay Books division of Arjay Enterprises